Our venom work continues to expand to include many species of snake, centipede, and scorpion. Some of our focal species are shown below.


For our work on intraspecific venom variation in snakes, we primarily work with five species: the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), the pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius), the eastern coralsnake (Micrurus fulvius), and the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). The first four of these are locally abundant and sympatric over much of their ranges, facilitating comparative population-genomic studies.

The eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) is the species we used to develop and implement all of our genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques. We know more about the venom composition and variation in this species than any other.
We are currently working on population genomics and the characterization of venom variation in the Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti).
We are currently working on population genomics and the characterization of venom variation in the dusky pygmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri)
The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) shows a drastic venom dichotomy, with some populations having typical hemorrhagic rattlesnake venom and others having a streamlined neurotoxic venom. We are studying the origin and selective forces maintaining this dichotomy.
The eastern coralsnake (Micrurus fulvius)


We are in the process of characterizing venom composition in 12 invertebrate species, including six species of centipede and six species of scorpion. We are primarily working on centipedes in the genus Scolopendra and scorpions in the genera Centruroides and Hadrurus. In addition, we are looking at intraspecific venom variation in several of these using proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, as well as functional assays on venoms. Some of the species we are working with are shown below.

Scolopendra viridis from near Tallahassee, FL.
Scolopendra alternans from the Florida Keys.
Scolopendra polymorpha
Scolopendra heros from west TX.
S. heros_1
Scolopendra heros from west TX.
Scolopocryptops sexspinosus from near Tallahassee, FL.
Hemiscolopendra marginata from near Tallahassee, FL.
C. gracilis_2
Centruroides gracilis from the Florida Keys.
Hadrurus spadix_2
Hadrurus spadix from Owhyee County, ID.
Centruroides vittatus_2
Centruroides vittatus from Goliad County, TX.
Centruroides gracilis with babies.